Do not forget the beginning of the heart, the progress of China's machine tools adhere to the road of independent development

2018-09-05 10:35:13 4

The machine tool industry is a "master machine" industry, covering 8 small industries such as metal cutting machine tools, metal forming machine tools, foundry machinery, woodworking machinery, measuring tools and measuring instruments, abrasive tools, machine tool accessories, machine tool electrical appliances (including CNC systems) and 20 Multiple branches are one of the most important strategic industries and are highly valued in industrialized countries. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, under the strategic planning and overall layout of the party and the government, through the efforts of the "15th" and "2nd Five-Year Plan", China has gradually established a complete industrial system of machine tools. During the "Cultural Revolution", China's machine tool industry was difficult to maintain in serious interference. Although it has achieved certain development, it has missed a valuable golden development period of ten years and further widened the gap with the international advanced level. After the "Cultural Revolution", after the chaos, the restorative rectification was carried out. Especially in the 40 years of reform and opening up, China's machine tool industry has overcome many difficulties, adhered to the road of independent development, and rapidly improved the overall level, and is moving towards the goal of the machine tool industry. .


I. Reform and opening up and the transformation of the machine tool industry (1978-2000)


After the reform and opening up, as the planned economy turned to the market economy, China's machine tool industry began a corresponding transformation, and thus ushered in a new stage of development.


1. Restorative rectification (1978-1980)


Since the summer of 1977, according to the unified deployment of the Ministry of Machinery Industry, the enterprise management rectification work centered on improving product quality has been carried out, paving the way for reform and opening up. By 1979, most key key enterprises had reached the relevant acceptance criteria, and on this basis, comprehensive quality management was carried out. At this time, there are more than 1,400 machine tool enterprises above designated size in the country. By 1980, 41 machine tool factories had built a total of 53,000 square meters of constant temperature workshops. At the same time, the planned distribution system of the national unified purchase and marketing system that has been used for many years has been loosened, and the Chinese machine tool industry has ushered in reform and opening up.


2. Going to market during the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period (1981-1985)


Affected by macroeconomic factors and other factors, the order quantity of the machine tool industry declined from 1979 to 1980. To this end, the First Ministry of Machinery Industry (referred to as a machine department), which is in charge of the machine tool industry at that time, proposed a policy of expanding the service direction. On February 10, 1983, the Ministry of Machinery Industry issued the “Trial Measures for the Implementation of the Planned Economy by the Machinery Industry and the Market Regulation as a Supplementary Principle”, and changed the single mandatory plan into three types of plans. By the mid-1990s, machine tool products were all open and marketed. In the meantime, cooperation between domestic machine tool factories and overseas machine tool companies has also been opened. By 1985, 25 companies in the machine tool industry had signed 32 cooperative production agreements with 28 companies in 5 countries.


After the reform and opening up, the level of machine tool industry products has gradually increased, and product exports have grown rapidly. In 1979, the export of machine tools earned US$38 million. By 1997, the foreign exchange earned by exports reached US$280 million, seven times that of 1979.


During this period, 48 national key technological transformation projects were arranged, and the Ministry focused on 27 projects with an investment of 311.7 million yuan, which achieved remarkable results. Since the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, the state has systematically carried out technological transformations on key enterprises, key products, and key processes, thereby promoting product quality improvement and new product development.


3. Reforms ushered in the transformation and development of the industry (1986-2000)


After entering the 1980s, the state's investment in technological transformation of machine tool enterprises has increased year by year. Through technological transformation, the industry's product development capabilities and manufacturing capabilities have been strengthened, management levels have gradually improved, and the ability to adapt to the market economy has gradually increased.


In addition to enterprises, the industry has 8 comprehensive research institutes, 37 professional research institutes and enterprise design departments, forming a research and development system for machine tool industry. In addition to the introduction of technology, it also began to introduce foreign scientific and technological talents, make full use of international technical strength, and accelerate the development of China's machine tool industry.


In 1988, the establishment of the China Machine Tool Industry Association (CMTBA, referred to as the Machine Tool Association) can be said to be a major event of reform and opening up. The establishment of the Machine Tool Association conformed to the international environmental background at that time, and met the needs of the national economic system reform and the transformation of the industry's own development model, and established an efficient communication platform between machine tool enterprises and the government. After the establishment of the association, it adhered to the characteristics of “civilism, industry, service, fairness and international correspondence”, creating a good market environment for the whole industry. At the beginning of the founding of the association, China International Machine Tool Exhibition (CIMT) was established, which established an important platform for mutual exchanges between the global machine tool industry. Zou Jiahua, then vice premier of the State Council, wrote the CIMT inscription “Communicating Technology, Strengthening Cooperation, Expanding Trade, Common prosperity". Since then, China CNC Machine Tool Exhibition (CCMT) was founded in 2000, which has contributed to the development of China's CNC machine tool industry.


Topic 1: Management System Reform and Related Industrial Policies


After the reform and opening up, relevant policies and management system reform measures introduced in different historical periods played an important role in the development of China's machine tool industry.


On July 30, 1984, Guofa [1984] No. 114, "Notice of the State Council's Approval of the Ministry of Machinery Industry on the Reform of the Management System of the Machinery Industry" was issued, and all the enterprises directly affiliated to the machine tool were decentralized. On October 16, 1992, the General Office of the State Council forwarded the Notice of the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Electrical and Mechanical Services on the Measures for Revitalizing Certain Basic Machinery and Basic Parts by Circular No. [1992] No. 55. On March 16, 1994, Lu Dong, former director of the State Economic Commission, wrote a letter to Zhu Rongji, Zou Jiahua, Vice Premier Li Lanqing, Director Wang Zhongyu and Minister He Guangyuan on the "Proposal on Supporting 20 Key Enterprises to Accelerate the Development of China's CNC Machine Tool Industry". And was approved for approval. In March 1998, the first meeting of the Ninth National People's Congress was passed, and the Ministry of Machinery Industry was reorganized into the National Machinery Industry Bureau. On December 23, 2000, the General Office of the State Council issued a notice in the State Council issued [2000] No. 81 to revoke the National Machinery Bureau and form the China Machinery Industry Association (the China Machinery Industry Federation). Since then, the administrative management system of China's machine tool industry has undergone major changes, and the bridge role and service function of industry associations and federations have been highlighted.


Affected by the Asian financial turmoil, market demand is sluggish, and because of the structural contradictions in China's machine tool industry, the domestic market share has been declining year by year. By the end of the 1990s, the market share of domestic machine tools had fallen sharply, and corporate losses had increased. In the face of severe survival and development challenges, the state has supported the domestic machine tool industry to get rid of the predicament and open the road to transformation and upgrading. In October 1998, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued a VAT on CNC machine tool products. Preferential Policy - "Notice on the Issue of Value-Added Tax Return for CNC Machine Tool Products" (Cai Shui Zi [1998] No. 70). The policy has been implemented for 10 years, which is conducive to encouraging enterprises to promote the industrialization of scientific and technological innovation achievements, improve the market share and core competitiveness of domestically produced medium and high-end CNC machine tools, and implement the principle of universality and fairness, which is widely welcomed by machine tool enterprises.


Topic 2: Development of CNC Machine Tools


The development of CNC machine tools in China began in 1958. By 1972, a small number of CNC wire cutting machines, non-circular gear shaping machines and boring mills were available for production. After that, the development of CNC machine tools in China entered a period of full launch. From 1972 to 1976, CNC systems, punching machines, ball screws, CNC cutters, etc. began to offer goods. From 1972 to 1979, a total of 4,180 CNC machine tools were produced, 90% of which were CNC wire-cutting machines.


After 1980, China's CNC machine tools entered a period of stable development. Through the introduction of numerical control system and host research and development technology, and joint design with foreign companies, China has produced its own CNC machine tools. During this period, Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute and Beijing No. 3 Machine Tool Plant jointly developed the JCS-FMC1 horizontal processing flexible unit and JCS-FMC2 vertical processing flexible unit; the first processing rotary body developed in China in cooperation with Japan FANUC company. The flexible manufacturing system is put into production. The TND360 CNC lathe produced by Nanjing Machine Tool Plant and German TRAUB Co., Ltd. was successfully trial-produced. Since its production in 1983, it has produced thousands of units in 1994, and the users have reported good results.


During the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, China developed 81 new varieties of CNC machine tools, and accumulated a total of 113 varieties, which is the watershed of CNC machine tools from exhibits and prototypes to commodities. During the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" period, the state arranged a "CNC one-stop" project with the introduction of technology digestion and absorption as the main content, including five kinds of mainframes and three kinds of numerical control systems to absorb and absorb localization.


After 1996, the pace of development of CNC machine tools in China has gradually accelerated. The machine tool industry develops efficient machining centers according to the needs of mass production of automobiles and motorcycles, and develops in the direction of high cost performance, high technology level, serialization and modularization, and the reliability of products is greatly improved.


By the year 2000, there were 1,500 kinds of CNC machine tools in China, and a five-axis linkage machining center was developed and put into the market. By 2001, 17 CNC system manufacturers produced 16016 sets of CNC systems. At the 8th China International Machine Tool Show (CIMT2003) in April 2003, 18 domestic 5-axis linkage machining centers were exhibited.


2. The rapid development of China's machine tool industry since the new century (2001-2018)


1. High-speed growth in the early 21st century (2001-2005)


After entering the 21st century, China experienced a period of rapid economic growth, and the machine tool industry has also achieved further development. The attention of the party and the state has created a good external environment for the development of the machine tool industry in the new century.


As a symbol of the development of machine tool industry, since the "10th Five-Year Plan" (2001-2005), the output of CNC machine tools in China has increased by more than 30%. The five-axis linkage machining center and the pentahedron gantry machining center have developed rapidly and entered the practical stage, providing key equipment for national key construction projects such as energy, automobile and aerospace. At the same time, the functional components and cutting tools for CNC machine tools have also been accelerated. In terms of gold cutting machine tools alone, the national output in 2002 reached 231,000 units, including 24,803 CNC machine tools. By 2003, the output of Jinchee machine tools reached 306,800 units, of which 36,813 CNC machine tools were produced.


At this time, China's machine tool industry has seen a situation in which various ownership enterprises develop together. By 2003, there were 1979 state-owned enterprises in the national machine tool industry and non-state-owned enterprises with annual sales income of more than 5 million yuan, with an output value of 74.7 billion yuan.


It is worth mentioning that the long-term cooperation mechanism for the application of domestic CNC machine tools in the military industry since 2005 has been developed in depth for more than 10 years, becoming one of the important links for the machine tool industry to participate in the development of the defense industry. The long-term cooperation mechanism is jointly promoted by the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the National Defense Science and Technology Industry Bureau, and the National Energy Administration. It also organizes the China Machine Tool Industry Association and the China Peaceful Use of Military Technology Association. Guided by the specific work of the industry, exploring the government-led, association-bridged, and military-civilian integration of supply and demand, promoting new ways of independent innovation and localization of high-end equipment manufacturing, promoting the application of domestic high-end CNC machine tools in the military industry, and promoting the integration of military and civilian development of.


2. Industry development achievements during the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010)


The "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" is the most magnificent five years in the history of the development of China's machine tool industry. The state-issued "equipment manufacturing adjustment and revitalization plan" and "high-end CNC machine tools and basic manufacturing equipment" technology major projects (hereinafter referred to as major special projects or 04 special projects) and other policies and measures to guide the machine tool industry in accordance with the needs of national economic development Products, a number of new products such as high-end CNC machine tools and heavy-duty CNC machine tools with international standards have emerged, partially meeting the demand for key equipment in national key construction projects. The ten major industrial revitalization plans formulated in early 2009 promoted the demand for machine tools in the equipment manufacturing industry and created a good market atmosphere for the machine tool industry to overcome the impact of the international financial crisis. The whole industry actively implemented the spirit of the party's relevant conferences and various policies. The industry's economic operation continued to maintain rapid growth, and independent innovation and research and development capabilities were significantly enhanced, greatly narrowing the gap with the world's industrialized countries.


During the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, China's national economy has maintained a stable and rapid development trend. The market demand for machine tool products is increasing. The industries such as automobiles, aerospace, ships, energy equipment, and transportation equipment have put forward higher requirements and need to be efficient. High-automation, high-reliability, high-quality CNC machine tools. Market demand has accelerated the adjustment of industrial structure and product structure in the machine tool industry.


In the three years from 2006 to 2008, the total industrial output value of China's machine tool industry achieved a year-on-year growth of 27.1%, 35.5%, and 27.5%. Since 2008, due to the impact of the international financial crisis, various economic indicators have fallen sharply. In 2009, the total industrial output value of China's machine tool industry dropped to 16.1% year-on-year. In 2010, affected by relevant policies, the production and sales of the machine tool industry resumed rapid growth, and the total industrial output value increased by 40.6% year-on-year. In the same period, the proportion of China's machine tool product exports in the country's total export volume increased slightly, the proportion of imports in the country's total imports has decreased significantly, and the dependence on foreign machine tool products has declined.


With the rapid development of the domestic equipment manufacturing industry, the market has generated huge demand for medium and high-end CNC machine tools. Enterprises have increased investment in product research and development, and new high-end new products have emerged. The domestic blanks have been fully covered. Serialized heavy-duty, ultra-heavy CNC machine tools, high-speed high-precision CNC machine tools, five-axis linkage machine tools, hybrid CNC machine tools, flexible production lines (FMS), CNC multi-station presses, automotive cover stamping lines, CNC tape laying machines, Winding machines, large-diameter CNC spinning machines and other products, the categories, varieties, specifications are more complete, the technical level has achieved better upgrades and breakthroughs.


During the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” period, the output of economical CNC machine tools decreased year by year, the output of medium and high-end CNC machine tools increased year by year, and the output of heavy-duty CNC machine tools increased. The total industrial output value of the machine tool industry has reached 1,742.71 billion yuan, an increase of 275.8% over the 463.75 billion yuan of the "10th Five-Year Plan". The output of metal cutting machine tools was 3.12 million units, including 728,000 CNC machine tools, which increased by 98.7% and 281% respectively compared with the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”.


Significant changes have taken place in the ownership structure of companies above the scale of the machine tool industry. Comparing the relevant data in 2005 and 2010: the number of private enterprises (above the scale) increased from 42.86% to 78.3% in the industry, and the output value increased from 21.6% to 69.2% in the industry. The number of enterprises in the whole industry increased from 2004 to 6,367, and the number of employees increased from 493,300 to 845,100.


3. Entering a new stage of transformation and upgrading (2011-2018)


Since entering the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” (2011-2015), China's machine tool industry has maintained a global leading position in terms of economic scale and market demand. Since 2002, China has been ranked first in the world in terms of consumption and import of metal processing machine tools. Since 2009, China has been the largest producer, exporter and largest importer of metal processing machine tools in the world. .


As an important basic industry of the national economy, the party and state leaders continue to attach great importance to the stable development of the industry. In 2011, the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, the president of the state, the chairman of the Central Military Commission Hu Jintao, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and the Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Jia Qinglin and other leaders of the country inspected some key machine tool enterprises. In 2012, Jia Qinglin, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Li Keqiang, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and Vice Premier of the State Council, and Zhang Dejiang, vice premier of the State Council, inspected Beiyi Machine Tool, Wuhan Heavy Machinery, Chongqing Machine Tool and other enterprises. In July and August 2013, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi Jinping inspected China's weapons Wuzhong Group and Shenyang Machine Tool Group, emphasizing that industry as the foundation of the country should adhere to independence, self-reliance, independent research and development, and form scientific and technological competitiveness. To shoulder the heavy responsibility of realizing the Chinese nation's great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream. In April of the same year, Zhang Dejiang, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, inspected the Jinan Second Machine Tool. The national leaders also visited the China International Machine Tool Show (CIMT) and China CNC Machine Tool Exhibition (CCMT) hosted by the China Machine Tool Industry Association to learn about the development of the machine tool industry.


Against the background of sustained economic growth and leading, the competition in the international machine tool manufacturing industry has quietly changed, from the precision competition of machine tools to the competition of machine tool information level and comprehensive standards; the competition in the machine tool market has been transformed from pure product competition to products. Life cycle full service and competition for service standards. Machine tool enterprises have accelerated the transformation from economies of scale to quality and efficiency, from production-oriented enterprises to innovative enterprises, from extensive enterprises to intensive enterprises. China's machine tool industry has entered a new stage of transformation and upgrading.


New progress has been made in industrial restructuring. Through several years of efforts, key functional components and the domestic CNC system industry have been strengthened, and the level of products and specialization has improved. The structural adjustment of SME products showed a good trend, reflecting the progress of industrial restructuring of the machine tool industry. In addition to striving to serve the largest user automotive industry in machine tools, the machine tool industry is also actively involved in the energy equipment industry that is supported by the state. The market share of domestic CNC machine tools has increased significantly. Some domestic enterprises have begun to try to go abroad for cross-border mergers and acquisitions.


The product structure continues to be optimized and upgraded. The products are adjusted from ordinary machine tools to CNC machine tools, from low-end CNC machine tools to medium and high-end CNC machine tools, from single CNC machine tools to CNC production units and flexible production lines, from general-purpose to characterization, customization, and differentiation. Digital manufacturing is intelligently adjusted. The 7th China CNC Machine Tool Exhibition (CCMT2012) held in 2012 reflected the results of product structure adjustment from another aspect. CNC compound machine tools and five-axis linkage machine tools have become product development trends.


Innovation drives fruitful results. According to statistics from the China Machine Tool Industry Association, 751 and 743 new product trials were completed in 2011 and 2012 respectively; in 2013, 142 companies reported 664 new products. Since the establishment of the China Machinery Industry Science and Technology Awards in 2001, by 2017, the machine tools have won a total of 322 awards, including 2 special prizes, 30 first prizes, 103 second prizes and 187 third prizes.


Competing with the international high-level counterparts. During this period, Jinan Second Machine Tool Group Co., Ltd. entered the mainstream market of international automobile manufacturing equipment and became one of the models of Chinese machine tool enterprises. In the international bidding in 2011, Jinan No. 2 machine machine included the orders of five large-scale fast feeding and stamping production lines and two blanking presses of two factories of Ford Motor Company in the United States, winning the highest international bidding with world-class enterprises such as Germany. Horizontal stamping equipment orders. As of 2017, the nine stamping lines supplied by Jinan No. 2 Machine Tool for Ford Motor's US plant have all been delivered and received favorable comments from users. In addition, in the international competition with world-class companies such as Germany and Japan, Ji Er has successively won orders from GM, Volkswagen, Nissan, Volvo and other automobile brands, and in the second half of 2017, it realized the implementation of the French Peugeot Citroen, Japan Nissan and other European countries. In the breakthrough of the Japanese domestic market, 21 overseas projects in 12 countries have been implemented at the same time, which has won honors for Chinese equipment manufacturing.